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乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信,英国首相特

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乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信,英国首相特

原标题:双语||乾隆大帝国君给英帝国皇上George三世的信(中立陶宛语)

Prime Minister's Commons statement on triggering Article 50

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前段时间,英国首相Trey莎·梅签署历史性信函,运转斯德哥尔摩条款第50条(Article 50),正式运营“脱欧”程序。梅姨签字为证:

奉天承运,圣上敕谕,英吉利君王知悉:

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咨尔君主,远在重洋,倾心向化,特遣使恭赍表章,航海来廷,叩祝万寿,并备进方物,用将忱悃澳门微尼斯人官网 ,(还带了大多礼物,忠心可嘉)。**朕披阅表文,词意肫恳,具见国王恭顺之诚,深为嘉许。全数赍到表贡之正职和副职使臣,念其奉使远涉,推恩加礼。已令大臣带领瞻觐(让大臣指点他们景仰天朝文明,赐予筵宴,叠合赏赉,用示怀柔。其已回珠山之管船官役人等第六百货余人,虽今后京,朕亦优加表彰,俾得普沾恩惠,同等对待(已经回来瓦尔帕莱索珠山的管船役使等600四个人即使尚无来京,小编也同样重视给与优厚嘉勉,让我们都沾沾光)。**

Thank you Mr Speaker.

至尔皇帝表内恳请派一尔国之人住居天朝,照拂尔国买卖一节,此则与天朝体制不合,断不可行。平素西洋各国有愿来天朝当差之人,原准其来京,但既来之后,即遵用天朝服色,安放堂内,永久不准复回本国,此系天朝定制,想尔皇帝亦所知悉。今尔圣上欲求派一尔国之人居住京城,既无法若来京当差之西德国人,在京居住不归本国,又不足听其来往,常通新闻,实为无用之事。且天朝所管地方至为广远,凡外藩使臣到京,驿馆须求,行为举止出入,俱有早晚体制,从无听其任性之例。今尔国若留人在京,言语不通,服装殊制,无地能够安放。若必似来京当差之西奥地利人,令其一律改易时装,天朝亦不肯强人以所难。设天朝欲差人常驻尔国,亦岂尔国所能遵行(假诺小编天朝也派人常住你国,或许你国也不容许吗?)?况西洋诸国甚多,非止尔一国,若俱似尔国王恳请派人留京,岂能一一听许?是那件事断难准行。岂能因尔天皇壹位之请,以至更张天朝百年法度(无法因为圣上你壹个人之请,将天朝一百多年的老实给废了)。

Today the government acts onthe democratic will[民主意愿]of the British people. And it acts, too, on the clear and convincing position of this House.

若云尔天皇为照顾购销起见,则尔国人在也门萨那贸易非止14日,原无不加以恩视(若派人来京是为着照拂买卖起见,那你国人在汉森尔顿交易亦不是一天二日了,天朝原来对经纪人就从未有过注重)。即如从前博尔都噶尔亚、意达哩亚等国再三遣使来朝,亦曾以照管贸易为请。天朝鉴其悃忱,优加体恤(像在此以前葡萄牙共和国、意大利共和国几国一些次派人来,也已经以照看贸易的名义请作者照拂。天朝看他们挺真诚的,也不轻便,就多加体恤)。凡遇这个国家等贸易之事,无不照料周备。前次江西商家吴昭平有拖欠洋船价值银两者,俱饬令该管总督由官库内先行动支帑项代为归还,并将拖欠商人重治其罪。想这件事尔国亦闻知矣,外国又何必派人留京,为此越例断不可行之请?况留人在京,距福州贸易处所几及万里,伊亦何能照顾耶(而且你们派人驻京,京城距福州大约两千0里,他怎么能照应到?)?**若云艳羡天朝,欲其观习教化,则天朝自有天朝礼法,与尔国各分裂样。尔国所留之人即能习学,尔国自有风俗制度,亦断不能够模仿中中原人民共和国,即学会亦属无效**。

A few minutes ago inBrussels[芝加哥],the United Kingdom's Permanent Representative to the EU[英常驻欧洲结盟表示]handed a letter tothe President of the European Council[欧洲结盟理事委员会主席]on my behalf, confirming the government's decision to invokeArticle 50 of the Treaty on European Union[《斯德哥尔摩条目》第50条].

天朝扶有四处,惟奋发有为,办理行政事务,无价之宝,并不贵重(天朝管辖的地方那么大,我想的是怎么努力,至于稀世珍宝啥的自家并不看得相当重)。尔主公这一次赍进各物,念其诚心远献,特谕该管衙门收纳(你呀这一次进贡了成都百货上千红包,念你特别真诚大老远献来了,笔者才特意下旨让有关部门收了)。**实在天朝德威远被,万国来王,种种贵重之物,梯航毕集,无所下有,尔之正使等所亲见(其实天朝德泽四方,威加大世界,万国来朝,通过水田和旱地两路给自家进贡,咱什么贵重玩意儿都不缺,那些你的义务都是亲眼见过的)。然从不贵奇巧,并无更需尔国制办物件。是尔国君所请派人留京一事,于天朝体制既属不合,而于尔国亦殊觉无益。特此详晰开示,遣令该使等安程回国(笔者把话都挑明了,现令令你国使者立刻陈设回国行程)**尔国君惟当善体朕意,益励款诚,永矢恭顺,以保义尔有邦,分享太平之福(国君你应有很好地驾驭小编的情致,对天朝要更为热诚归附,发誓永恒对天朝恭顺,天朝的恩惠就会施予你们国家,一起创建和睦社会)。除正职和副职使臣以下各官及通事兵役人等正贯加赏各物件另单赏给外,兹因尔国使臣回国,特颁敕谕,并赐赍尔太岁文绮珍物,具如常仪,加赐彩缎罗绮,文玩器材诸珍(除了正副使臣以下一干人等都按等级赏给种种物件,因为你国使者马上快要回国,笔者又专门下令,除了按常规赏给您的风趣意儿以外,加赐你绫罗绸缎、文玩器械等有趣意儿若干),另有清单。王其祗受,悉朕眷怀(皇恩浩荡,那都以本人对你们的关注)

The Article 50 process is now underway. Andin accordance withthe wishes of the British people, the United Kingdom is leaving the European Union.

明知故犯敕谕。**——**《清实录》

This is an historic moment from whichthere can be no turning back.Britain is leaving the European Union. We are going to make our own decisions and our own laws. We are going to take control of the things that matter most to us. And we are going to take this opportunity to build a stronger, fairer Britain – a country that our children and grandchildren are proud to call home. That is our ambition and our opportunity. That is what this government is determined to do.

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Mr Speaker, at moments like these –great turning pointsin our national story – the choices we make define the character of our nation. We can choose to say the task ahead is too great. We can choose to turn our face to the past and believe it can't be done. Or we can look forward with optimism and hope – and to believe inthe enduring power[坚持力量]of the British spirit.

Qianlong’s Letter to George III, 1793

I choose to believe in Britain and that our best dayslie ahead. And I do so because I am confident that we have the vision and the plan to use this moment to build a better Britain. For leaving the European Union presents us with a unique opportunity. It is this generation's chance toshape a brighter futurefor our country. A chance to step back and ask ourselves what kind of country we want to be.

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My answer is clear. I want the United Kingdom to emerge from this period of changestronger,fairer, more united and more outward-lookingthan ever before. I want us to be asecure, prosperous, tolerantcountry – amagnet[磁铁;吸铁石]for international talent and a home to the pioneers and innovators who will shape the world ahead.

You, O King, live beyond the confines of many seas. Nevertheless, impelled by your humble desire to partake of the benefits of our civilisation, you have dispatched a mission respectfully bearing your memorial. Your Envoy has crossed the seas and paid his respects at my Court on the anniversary of my birthday. To show your devotion, you have also sent offerings of your country's produce.

I want us to be a trulyGlobal Britain– the best friend and neighbour to our European partners, but a country that reaches beyond the borders of Europe too. A country that goes out into the world to build relationships with old friends and new allies alike.

I have perused your memorial: the earnest terms in which it is couched reveal a respectful humility on your part, which is highly praiseworthy. In consideration of the fact that your Ambassador and his deputy have come a long way with your memorial and tribute, I have shown them high favour and have allowed them to be introduced into my presence. To manifest my indulgence, I have entertained them at a banquet and made them numerous gifts. I have also caused presents to be forwarded to the Naval Commander and six hundred of his officers and men, although they did not come to Peking, so that they too may share in my all-­embracing kindness.

And that is why I haveset out a clear and ambitious planfor the negotiations ahead. It is a plan for a new deep and special partnership between Britain and the European Union.A partnership of values. A partnership of interests. A partnership based on co-operation in areas such as security and economic affairs. Anda partnership that works in the best interests of the United Kingdom, the European Union and the wider world.

As to your entreaty to send one of your nationals to be accredited to my Celestial Court and to be in control of your country's trade with China, this request is contrary to all usage of my dynasty and cannot possibly be entertained. It is true that Europeans, in the service of the dynasty, have been permitted to live at Peking, but they are compelled to adopt Chinese dress, they are strictly confined to their own precincts and are never permitted to return home. You are presumably familiar with our dynastic regulations. Your proposed Envoy to my Court could not be placed in a position similar to that of European officials in Peking who are forbidden to leave China, nor could he, on the other hand, be allowed liberty of movement and the privilege of corresponding with his own country; so that you would gain nothing by his residence in our midst.

Because perhaps now more than ever, the world needs theliberal,democraticvalues of Europe – values that this United Kingdom shares. And that is why, while we are leaving the institutions of the European Union, we are not leaving Europe.We will remain a close friend and ally.We will be a committed partner[忠实的小同伙]. We will play our part to ensure that Europe is able toproject its valuesanddefend itself from security threats[护卫自身免受安全威胁]. And we will do all that we can to help the European Union prosper and succeed.

Moreover, our Celestial dynasty possesses vast territories, and tribute missions from the dependencies are provided for by the Department for Tributary States, which ministers to their wants and exercises strict control over their movements. It would be quite impossible to leave them to their own devices. Supposing that your Envoy should come to our Court, his language and national dress differ from that of our people, and there would be no place in which to bestow him. It may be suggested that he might imitate the Europeans permanently resident in Peking and adopt the dress and customs of China, but, it has never been our dynasty's wish to force people to do things unseemly and inconvenient. Besides, supposing I sent an Ambassador to reside in your country, how could you possibly make for him the requisite arrangements? Europe consists of many other nations besides your own: if each and all demanded to be represented at our Court, how could we possibly consent? The thing is utterly impracticable. How can our dynasty alter its whole procedure and system of etiquette, established for more than a century, in order to meet your individual views? If it be said that your object is to exercise control over your country's trade, your nationals have had full liberty to trade at Canton for many a year, and have received the greatest consideration at our hands. Missions have been sent by Portugal and Italy, preferring similar requests. The Throne appreciated their sincerity and loaded them with favours, besides authorising measures to facilitate their trade with China. You are no doubt aware that, when my Canton merchant, Wu Chao-ping, who was in debt to foreign ships. I made the Viceroy advance the monies due, out of the provincial treasury, and ordered him to punish the culprit severely. Why then should foreign nations advance this utterly unreasonable request to be represented at my Court? Peking is nearly two thousand miles from Canton, and at such a distance what possible control could any British representative exercise?

So Mr Speaker, in the letter that has been delivered toPresident Tusktoday – copies of which I have placed in the library of the House – I have been clear that the deep and special partnership we seek is inthe best interests ofthe United Kingdom and of the European Union too.

If you assert that your reverence for Our Celestial dynasty fills you with a desire to acquire our civilisation, our ceremonies and code of laws differ so completely from your own that, even if your Envoy were able to acquire the rudiments of our civilisation, you could not possibly transplant our manners and customs to your alien soil. Therefore, however adept the Envoy might become, nothing would be gained thereby.

I have been clear that we will work constructively – in a spirit of sincereco-operation– to bring this partnership into being. And I have been clear that we should seek to agree the terms of this future partnership alongside those of our withdrawal, within the next 2 years.

Swaying the wide world, I have but one aim in view, namely, to maintain a perfect governance and to fulfil the duties of the State: strange and costly objects do not interest me. If I have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by you, O King, are to be accepted, this was solely in consideration for the spirit which prompted you to dispatch them from afar. Our dynasty's majestic virtue has penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country's manufactures. This then is my answer to your request to appoint a representative at my Court, a request contrary to our dynastic usage, which would only result in inconvenience to yourself. I have expounded my wishes in detail and have commanded your tribute Envoys to leave in peace on their homeward journey. It behoves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to display even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so that, by perpetual submission to our Throne, you may secure peace and prosperity for your country hereafter. Besides making gifts (of which I enclose an inventory) to each member of your Mission, I confer upon you, O King, valuable presents in excess of the number usually bestowed on such occasions, including silks and curios-a list of which is likewise enclosed. Do you reverently receive them and take note of my tender goodwill towards you! A special mandate.

I am ambitious for Britain. And the objectives I have set out for these negotiations remain. We will deliver certainty wherever possible so that business, the public sector and everybody else has as much clarity as we can provide as we move through the process. It is why, tomorrow, we will publish aWhite Paperconfirming our plans to convert the ‘acquis’ into British law, so that everyone will know where they stand.

You, O King, from afar have yearned after the blessings of our civilisation, and in your eagerness to come into touch with our converting influence have sent an Embassy across the sea bearing a memorial. I have already taken note of your respectful spirit of submission, have treated your mission with extreme favour and loaded it with gifts, besides issuing a mandate to you, O King, and honouring you with the bestowal of valuable presents. Thus has my indulgence been manifested.

And it is why I have been clear that the government will put the final deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a vote in bothHouses of Parliamentbefore itcomes into force. We will take control of our own laws and bring an end to thejurisdiction[1]of the European Court of Justice in Britain. Leaving the European Union will mean that our laws will be made inWestminster,Edinburgh,CardiffandBelfast. And those laws will be interpreted by judges not inLuxembourg, but in courts across this country.

Yesterday your Ambassador petitioned my Ministers to memorialise me regarding your trade with China, but his proposal is not consistent with our dynastic usage and cannot be entertained. Hitherto, all European nations, including your own country's barbarian merchants, have carried on their trade with our Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years, although our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce. But as the tea, silk and porcelain which the Celestial Empire produces, are absolute necessities to European nations and to yourselves, we have permitted, as a signal mark of favour, that foreign hongs [merchant firms] should be established at Canton, so that your wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our beneficence. But your Ambassador has now put forward new requests which completely fail to recognise the Throne's principle to "treat strangers from afar with indulgence," and to exercise a pacifying control over barbarian tribes, the world over. Moreover, our dynasty, swaying the myriad races of the globe, extends the same benevolence towards all. Your England is not the only nation trading at Canton. If other nations, following your bad example, wrongfully importune my ear with further impossible requests, how will it be possible for me to treat them with easy indulgence? Nevertheless, I do not forget the lonely remoteness of your island, cut off from the world by intervening wastes of sea, nor do I overlook your excusable ignorance of the usages of our Celestial Empire. I have consequently commanded my Ministers to enlighten your Ambassador on the subject, and have ordered the departure of the mission. But I have doubts that, after your Envoy's return he may fail to acquaint you with my view in detail or that he may be lacking in lucidity, so that I shall now proceed . . . to issue my mandate on each question separately. In this way you will, I trust, comprehend my meaning....

[1]jurisdiction[.dʒʊərɪs'dɪkʃ(ə)n]

(3) Your request for a small island near Chusan, where your merchants may reside and goods be warehoused, arises from your desire to develop trade. As there are neither foreign hongs nor interpreters in or near Chusan, where none of your ships have ever called, such an island would be utterly useless for your purposes. Every inch of the territory of our Empire is marked on the map and the strictest vigilance is exercised over it all: even tiny islets and far­lying sand­banks are clearly defined as part of the provinces to which they belong. Consider, moreover, that England is not the only barbarian land which wishes to establish . . . trade with our Empire: supposing that other nations were all to imitate your evil example and beseech me to present them each and all with a site for trading purposes, how could I possibly comply? This also is a flagrant infringement of the usage of my Empire and cannot possibly be entertained.

the authority of a court or official organization to make decisions and judgments 司法权;管辖权;审判权

(4) The next request, for a small site in the vicinity of Canton city, where your barbarian merchants may lodge or, alternatively, that there be no longer any restrictions over their movements at Aomen, has arisen from the following causes. Hitherto, the barbarian merchants of Europe have had a definite locality assigned to them at Aomen for residence and trade, and have been forbidden to encroach an inch beyond the limits assigned to that locality.... If these restrictions were withdrawn, friction would inevitably occur between the Chinese and your barbarian subjects, and the results would militate against the benevolent regard that I feel towards you. From every point of view, therefore, it is best that the regulations now in force should continue unchanged....

The court has no jurisdiction in/over cases of this kind.

(7) Regarding your nation's worship of the Lord of Heaven, it is the same religion as that of other European nations. Ever since the beginning of history, sage Emperors and wise rulers have bestowed on China a moral system and inculcated a code, which from time immemorial has been religiously observed by the myriads of my subjects. There has been no hankering after heterodox doctrines. Even the European (missionary) officials in my capital are forbidden to hold intercourse with Chinese subjects; they are restricted within the limits of their appointed residences, and may not go about propagating their religion. The distinction between Chinese and barbarian is most strict, and your Ambassador's request that barbarians shall be given full liberty to disseminate their religion is utterly unreasonable.

该法庭无权审判此类案件。

It may be, O King, that the above proposals have been wantonly made by your Ambassador on his own responsibility, or peradventure you yourself are ignorant of our dynastic regulations and had no intention of transgressing them when you expressed these wild ideas and hopes.... If, after the receipt of this explicit decree, you lightly give ear to the representations of your subordinates and allow your barbarian merchants to proceed to Chêkiang and Tientsin, with the object of landing and trading there, the ordinances of my Celestial Empire are strict in the extreme, and the local officials, both civil and military, are bound reverently to obey the law of the land. Should your vessels touch the shore, your merchants will assuredly never be permitted to land or to reside there, but will be subject to instant expulsion. In that event your barbarian merchants will have had a long journey for nothing. Do not say that you were not warned in due time! Tremblingly obey and show no negligence! A special mandate!

We will strengthen the Union of the 4 nations thatcompriseour United Kingdom. We will negotiate as one United Kingdom, taking account of the specific interests of every nation and region of the UK and when it comes to the powers that we will take back from Europe, we will consult fully on which powers shouldreside inWestminster and which should be passed on tothe devolved administrations.

From Backhouse, E. and J. O. P. Bland, Annals and Memoirs of the Court of Peking. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914. pp. 322-­331.

But Mr Speaker, no decisions currently taken by the devolved administrations will be removed from them. And it is the expectation of the government that the devolved administrations inScotland,WalesandNorthern Irelandwill see a significant increase in theirdecision-making poweras a result of this process.

本文转自:译介与文化传播回到新浪,查看越多

We want to maintain the common travel area withthe Republic of Ireland. There should be no return to the borders of the past. We will control immigration so that we continue to attract the brightest and the best to work or study in Britain, but manage the process properly so that our immigration system serves the national interest.

责编:

We seek to guarantee the rights ofEU citizens[欧洲缔盟公民]who are already living in Britain, and the rights ofBritish nationals[英帝国平民]in other member states as early as we can. That is set out very clearly in the letter as an early priority for the talks ahead. We will ensure that workers' rights are fully protected and maintained.Indeed, under my leadership,not only will the government protect the rights of workers, we will build on them.

We will pursue aboldandambitiousfree trade agreement with the European Union that allows for the freest possible trade in goods and services between Britain and the EU's member states; that gives British companiesthe maximum freedomto trade with and operate within European markets; and that lets European businesses do the same in Britain.

Because European leaders have said many times that we cannot ‘cherry pick[2]’ and remain members of the single market without accepting the 4 freedoms that are indivisible. We respect that position. And as accepting those freedomsis incompatible with[和...不相容的]the democratically expressed will of the British people, we will no longer be members of the single market.

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